Advanced Animal Disease Diagnosis and Management consortium
The North Eastern Region of India, owing to its unique geographical location sharing five international borders,
bears a constant threat to India’s livestock of incursions of exotic, transboundary diseases through its porous border. It is needless to emphasize
that the most scientific approach to effectively deal with such threats would be to strengthen regional infrastructure and capabilities in the
direction of developing latest diagnostics and organizing rigorous surveillance for the highly contagious and ravaging diseases so as to have
complete vigil on the disease situation of emerging and exotic infections and to build a formidable defense to guard the territories. The present
project has been framed as an important step towards this direction.
The DBT Center in NE on Advanced Animal Disease Diagnosis and Services management is a tripartite concept. It involves and links three developed infrastructural facilities of the country which includes NE laboratories, three National Labs and eight Directorates of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary in NER. The project will operate for five years. All these Institutions will coordinate in mission of animal diseases monitoring (endemic, ubiquitous and transboundary animal diseases), development of sensitive disease diagnostic protocols and user friendly diagnostic kits, data base management and training to the regional and state level scientists and technical manpower, supplying diagnostic reagents.
There are a number of animal science institutes in the country carrying out R & D Research under the ICAR/SAU/CAU, DRDO as well as CSIR. The CSIR/DBT institutes do mainly basic research in Animal sciences where as ICAR institutes/SAU/CAU are focussing on applied aspects. The most desired aspect would be a fusion of the two, and a liaison between the two on diagnostic empowerment regarding transboundary animal diseases. A nodal facility in the North east to address the issue of providing rapid diagnostic service and competence in detection and identification of major pathogens would be developed using available expertise from the national institutes. This facility would address the issue of health services in context of the animal- human-environment continuum. Finally such a facility would help in development of core competence in the north eastern part of the country.
The broad roles of all partners at regional as well as national levels would be
- To develop diagnostic protocols, kits and competence to address the issue of minimal holding time in sample identification and diagnosis for economically important diseases prevailing in the NER. Such infectious agents endemic in NER are CSFV, Rotavirus, Brucella, Clostridia, Shiga toxin producing E coli., Pasteurella, Duck plague virus, Haemoprotozoa like Babesia, Theileria of bovine and Cysticercus cellulosae of porcine.
- To identify separate zones of disease prevalence in respect of multisystemic, respiratory, enteric, reproductive microbial diseases of endemic as well as exotic, transboundary in nature through regular sero-monitoring and molecular epidemiological study.
- To strengthen the NE core labs with advanced diagnostic protocols and developing human resource.
- For capacity building of field veterinarians in areas of molecular disease diagnostic techniques, appropriate sampling protocols and disease reporting.
- To develop and foster national and international linkages on information, technology and human resource sharing and value addition to the programme.
- Deployment of trained paravets, preferably outsourced in consultation with state animal husbandry departments for genuine and regular sample acquisitions.
- To create an animal-human-environment continuum in the area of Zoonotic problems and diagnosis.
- To collect, characterize and preserve sera, microbial isolates systematically at Regional (AAU), as well as national referral facility (VTCC).
- To create an online Database for emerging, TADs and endemic diseases (and, if possible, exotic diseases for which country is at risk from NER borders) situation in North eastern part of the country and dissemination of information in the network mode - in collaboration with the PD-ADMAS Bangalore, HSADL-IVRI and VTCC, Hissar - by creating adequate infrastructure.
- Research on transboundary and endemic animal diseases of NER, so as to develop core competence on rapid diagnosis and control of such diseases. This would be done by way of establishment of three core laboratories across the NE region.
- Training of the State Veterinary personnel on the importance and periodicity of disease reporting, use of advanced / molecular diagnostic kits to detect diseases and sampling techniques.
- Development of human resources in the form of PG level students to man this sector technologically using frontier technologies. Capacity building of the core faculty in advanced laboratories of the world.
- Development of a public public partnership module encompassing three public partners for effectively handling the animal man environment continuum chain.
College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara
The lead center would coordinate with the other two core labs viz, Barapani and Selesih regarding progress and
implementation of the project. The repository would be located at the lead center. The database regarding results and screening status would be
maintained at the lead center. Budgetary powers would be however restricted to the center in question. National laboratory training programme
would be coordinated by the lead center. The lead center would be responsible for compilation and report communication to the implementing agency.
The College of Veterinary Sciences, Khanapara would be involved in screening samples from the states of Assam, Arunachal and Sikkim. The Khanapara lab would collaborate with HSADL for work pertaining to diagnosis, testing and sampling for PRRS, Nipah, BVDV, WNV and Type A Influenza. The collaboration with VTCC would be on JEV, WNV, and Influenza A. The collaboration with PDADMAS would be in the areas of multi drug resistant bacteria, Brucella, Leptospira, Pasteurellosis, CSFV and other emerging diseases. Work on parasitological aspects and pathology would be carried out at the lead center with respect to samples send from the states under its jurisdiction and also in certain cases of referral nature from the Barapani and Mizoram labs. A disease status update would also be conveyed regularly to the respective state governments and sample results would also be communicated. The center would also analyze samples for viral etiologies from Mizoram center and also communicate the same to the center. A core disease database would be maintained at the center and periodic updates would be done by the three core labs under intimation to the lead center.
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani
The ICAR research complex would be involved in screening samples from the states of Meghalaya, Tripura and Nagaland. The ICAR Research complex Barapani would collaborate with HSADL for work pertaining to diagnosis, testing and sampling for PRRS, Nipah, BVDV, WNV and Type A Influenza. The collaboration with VTCC would be on JEV, WNV, Influenza A. The collaboration with PDADMAS would be in the areas of multi drug resistant bacteria, Brucella, Leptospira, Pasteurellosis, CSFV and other emerging diseases. A disease status update would also be conveyed regularly to the respective state governments and sample results would also be communicated. The center would also analyze samples for viral etiologies from Mizoram center and also communicate the same to the center. Regular networking would be maintained with the lead center at Khanapara.
- Monthly sample receipt details along with samples would be supplied to enrich the regional/National repository.
- Liaison with the lead center regarding validation of diagnostic protocols as per need.
- Information sharing and status update with regard to prevalence of diseases and help in building a digital database of the project.
- Coordination with lead center in organizing training programmes and carrying out sensitization workshops.
College of Veterinary Sciences, Selesih, Aizawl
The College of Veterinary Sciences, Aizawl would be involved in screening samples from the states of Mizoram and Manipur. The Aizawl lab would collaborate with HSADL for work pertaining to diagnosis, testing and sampling for PRRS, Nipah, BVDV, WNV and Type A Influenza. The collaboration with VTCC would be on JEV, WNV, and Influenza A. The collaboration with PDADMAS would be in the areas of multi drug resistant bacteria, Brucella, Leptospira, Pasteurellosis, CSFV and other emerging diseases. Work would be mainly done on bacteriology and specific aspects of multi drug resistant bacteria would be studied. PD ADMAS based protocols would be adopted and disseminated to the state directorates periodically. A disease status update would also be conveyed regularly to the respective state governments and sample results would also be communicated. The center would also dispatch samples to the Khanapara and Barapani labs for virological confirmations. Training would also be a major mandate of this center.
ICAR-National Research Centre on Pig, Rani, Guwahati
The NRC on pig, Rani Guwahati would help in establishing sampling from the point of view of porcine value chain. It would be imperative to assess the extent of sampling throughput in commercial stock of pigs. Furthermore diagnostic infrastructure for detection of common porcine diseases would be carried out at the NRC on pig.
ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Disease, Bhopal
- To carry out basic & applied research on exotic, emerging, re-emerging diseases of animals.
- To develop competency for diagnosis & control of exotic/emerging diseases of animals.
- To create & update data-bank on these pathogens
- To keep vigilance on newly emerging infections.
- To develop skills in biorisk management and train manpower in the areas of biosafety, biosecurity and biocontainment.
Different diagnostic protocols are to be developed:
- Development of Multiplex DNA-Strip test for all prioritized BSL-III/IV pathogens
- Development of type-specific antigen capture ELISA for detection of AIV in poultry with reference to the NER.
- Development of quantitative multiplex real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous typing and sub typing of Influenza type A viruses in the NER.
- Development of Real-Time PCR for detection of Malignant Catarrhal Fever infection in domestic animals in NE India
- Development of diagnostics for detection of West Nile virus infection in wild resident and migratory birds in India
- Development of an isothermal amplification method for rapid detection and typing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs
ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines/Veterinary Type Culture Centre, Hissar
- Developing network & infrastructure for collection of samples for the diseases suspected and rapid testing.
- Training of the manpower & creating the awareness.
- Creating a disease database by real-time surveillance and monitoring
- Developing state-of-the-art diagnostic methods/tests/kits & strengthening of diagnostic capabilities
- Faster reporting of the diseases & strategizing mechanisms for adopting suitable control measures.
- Development of regional & national warning system (PD-ADMAS).
Diseases to be taken up.
Influenza A (Equine and Swine), Japanese Encephalitis/West Nile fever, Trypanosomosis, Exotic diseases (need based), Other diseases as per contemporary Pest Risk Analysis base
Surveillance for diseases
- Influenza A viruses (equine, swine, avian and canine), JE (equine, pigs and wild birds), WNV (equine and birds), Trypanosomosis (livestock including equines), exotic equine diseases (need based)
- Strengthening the NE core labs by providing training to Scientists, Veterinarians on existing diagnostic protocols, diagnostics, procedures etc.
- Inter-laboratory evaluation of diagnostics developed by NE Institutes.
- Field investigation in the NEH region for surveillance along with scientists/ Veterinarians from NEH region.
- Establishment of surveillance system for prompt investigation and reporting of animal diseases in NER
- To study the epidemiology of Influenza A virus, JE/WNV and Trypanosomosis among animal population in NER
- Isolation, molecular characterization and repositioning of the Influenza A virus, JEV/WNV and T.evansi isolated from the region
- Development of diagnostics and capacity building of NER by imparting training to field veterinarians and scientists
- Identification, characterization and repositioning of veterinary pathogens from NER
- Nodal centre for acquisition and management of microbial resources of animal origin
ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics,Bengaluru
- Livestock Disease Informatics – Epidemiology of endemic, emerging and TAD including Early warning system and Risk assessment.
- Technology Development – Development of Diagnostics
- Capacity Building – HRD through Training
A). Surveillance and Molecular analysis of MRSA, MR-CoNS, VRE; ESBL and Carbapenemase producing Gram-negative bacteria in farm animals and the animal handlers in NE India
- To isolate and identify staphylococci, enterococci and important gram negative bacilli from farm animals and their environment including animal handlers.
- To determine antibiotic resistance by phenotypic and genotypic methods.
- To characterize selected MRSA, MR-CoNS, ESBLs and Carbapenemase producing isolates using molecular tools.
- To define the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in farm animal associated staphylococci, enterococci and members of important gram negative bacilli in NE states.
B). Sero-epidemiological study of brucellosis in livestock in North East states of India using ELISA and Fluorescent Polarization Assay.
- To standardize Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) for diagnosing brucellosis at the field level.
- To generate geo-epidemiological data on seroprevalence of brucellosis in livestock in NE region.
C). Epidemiological study of Classical swine fever (CSF), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine torqueteno (TTV) in pigs in North East (NE) region of India.
- Collection of biological (blood/serum/clinical) samples and relevant data from pig farms/backyard pigs from the NE zones / states or in clinical cases or from the pigs with reproductive disorders.
- Diagnosis of the diseases using WHO/OIE approved test/protocols and/or other developed tests/assays.
- Analysis of the generated base line data on the sero and molecular epidemiology of CSF, PRRS and TTV Epidemiology of the disease, effective monitoring, associated risk factors and analysis.
State Animal Husbandry Departments (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh , Sikkim, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Manipur and Mizoram)
- Sponsoring field veterinarians for capacity building in areas of molecular disease diagnostic techniques, appropriate sampling protocols and disease reporting.
- Creation of a suitable sampling strategy and regular sample collections for dispatch to core labs of NER.
- Timely reporting of diseases to the core laboratories
- Collection of suitable samples/epidemiological information from outbreaks and timely dispatch to the core labs of NER.
- Incorporating disease related information in the state disease database and monthly outbreak reports.
- Active collaboration in developing state specific disease control measures
- Enforcing disease restriction/quarantine measures if deemed fit from time to time.
- GIS based disease tracking and utilizing core lab technical support in creating disease free zones/ containment zones particularly for transboundary diseases.
- Active collaboration in developing state specific disease control measures
- Undertake the task of regular sampling through paravets in consultation with NE core laboratories.
- Ensure regularity in sampling protocols by adopting formulation of a core team who would look into implementation and execution of project activities.
EXPECTED OUTCOME OF THE CENTER:
- State-of-the-art modern laboratories will be functioning in the NER by the time the project is completed.
- A critical mass of human resource (scientists, veterinarians, technicians etc) trained in issues and perspectives of eTADs will be available for the nation.
- Capacity for early (preferably pre-clinical) confirmatory diagnosis of eTADs will lead to timely reporting of the disease which will be helpful in early implementation of the disease control strategies/programmes.
- Technologies/Products in the form of a battery of diagnostic assays/kits, vaccines, repository of sera and clinical samples will be available after the completion of the project.
- A scientifically validated Disease Database will also be available at the end of the project, which will be helpful in keeping an eye on emerging and exotic animal diseases. This database will further be helpful in strategizing the disease control and eradication programmes and policies.
- New knowledge and information on disease, pathogens, epidemiologically valid data on various diseases, nucleotide and protein sequence data on many pathogens will also be the important outcome of the funding – the new information added in the world literature will enhance the prestige of the scientific community in particular and the country in general.
- Addition of the isolates arising out of DBT-assisted programme to VTCC repository will further strengthen the repositories existing at VTCC and NRCE which will be a national resource for posterity.
- The DBT funding will help in further strengthening of the existing repository facility which will be a national asset.
- Continuous surveillance of emerging transboundary diseases will help in keeping a vigil of disease scenario in the country vis-à-vis neighbouring countries and other countries which may be a risk country to us. The surveillance and monitoring will also give an idea about the microdata on livestock population and the dynamics of livestock husbandry and role the livestock diseases can play in food safety and security, nutritional security, animal welfare, human well-being, and national/global economy. The disease data compiled after continuous surveillance and monitoring will be useful in notifying the disease status and preparing the dossiers for seeking freedom from the disease. Besides, the data generated from the project will help in assessing the disease risk, if any. Due to international movements of men/material/animals, including vector population; there is could be a chance of introduction of the exotic disease(s) in the country and there is a need to be vigilant by bringing the country in “Preparedness State” for immediate diagnosis and identification of any new disease/pathogen incursion in the country.